Abstracts of 2007 Edition
To view the entire 2007 edition, click this link or the cover.
It would appear that New York City contributed much of its resources towards the preservation of the Union during the American Civil War. However, much of what was done in support of the Union war effort was not based on firm support of the Union or its principles, but instead were the results of internal motives of personal gain or advancement. In addition to economic motives, there were political and social reasons for supporting the war. Service in the war could be used as a platform for political advancement. New York recruiting authorities saw to it that the city's best citizens saw only limited service, thus gaining a reputation without excessive personal risk. As the war dragged onward the city's regiments became increasingly filled with foreign born and recently immigrated soldiers. Among the largest contributions of New York City to the war effort was that of its bankers, who stood to gain huge profits through loaning the government money at large interest rates. Contractors who made military equipment also made huge profits during the war, many producing inferior goods at inflated rates. Many New Yorkers owed their fortunes to the war and their lives to the organizations that had protected them from the draft.
Taking into account the multifaceted information on the overwhelming numbers of offenders returning to society; the statistics indicating high probabilities of recidivism; and the consequential strains placed on federal and correctional resources, it is ultimately necessary for the community to become engaged in the rehabilitation of ex-offenders. In conjunction with this; in implementing the involvement of community providers in the reentry effort, it is indeed imperative to establish an operational foundation for offender success by providing for cooperative efforts with businesses, pro-social support systems, and family reunification initiatives that will serve to give ex-offenders a sense of efficacy in the community as reformed, productive, and law abiding citizens.
oduction of hydrogen gas via the water-gas-shift-reaction and steam reformation are the most common methods of producing hydrogen and performed by reacting water with carbon monoxide or hydrocarbon fuels. Hydrogen gas was once used in "hot-air" balloons and in the form of town gas to heat homes. Although natural gas and electricity have replaced town gas, hydrogen production is important today in the hydrogenation of petroleum, vegetable oils and fats. Future applications of hydrogen include its use in proton exchange fuel cells, provided that production costs of hydrogen are competitive with hydrocarbon fuels. Further investigation of new catalysts will decrease the amount of energy required to produce hydrogen through the water-gas-shift-reaction and steam reformation, making the generation of hydrogen more cost effective and a more viable means of coping with energy needs in the future.
In western warfare it has been common practice to dehumanize one’s enemy in warfare. This dehumanization has led to torture, and poor decision-making with respect to culture throughout history, simply because it is easier to cope mentally. Since the advent of ideological warfare, understanding and humanizing one’s enemy has become increasingly important. The problems in Abu Ghureib, the legal black hole in Guantanamo Bay, and the basing of troops in Saudi Arabia during Operation Desert Shield have sent up ideological exclamations throughout the Muslim world. These events have sent the United States backward in the War on Terror. Unless the Navy- Marine Corps team begins to address more adequately these ideological concerns, they will not be fulfilling their ethical commitment as human beings or their commitment to the American people to be the best fighting force possible.
"Therefore I say: ‘Know the enemy and know yourself; in a hundred battles you will never be in peril." -Sun Tsu Sun Tsu.
The Art of War, Trans. Griffith. New York City. 1963 Pg 84
In the years 58 to 50 B.C., one of history’s most powerful and effective military leaders, Julius Caesar, led a military campaign in Gaul. Through this conquest Caesar would not only Romanize Gaul and its people, but initiate the decline of the Roman Republic and the birth of the Roman Empire. In addition, the conquest also brought light to a section of Europe that until then had been unknown to the Mediterranean. Gaul had become a powerful and advanced civilization; one that until Caesar’s arrival had remained relatively untouched by Roman conquerors. Caesar’s conquest in Gaul opened an entire civilization to Roman influence, demonstrated a new level of military campaigning, and provided a crucial stepping stone in Caesar’s rise to power.