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Undergraduate Course Descriptions

BIOL 101 General Biology I Three Credit Hours
Prerequisite or Corequisite: BIOL 111
Non-majors course
Lecture: three credit hours
The introductory course in biology is designed for the non-majors that emphasizes the importance of biology and its impact on human society. Topics include the methods of science, cell structure and function, photosynthesis and cellular respiration, molecular biology, and genetics.

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BIOL 102 General Biology II Three Credit Hours
Prerequisite or Corequisite: BIOL 112
Non-majors course
Lecture: three credit hours
Continuation of the introductory course for non-majors that covers topics including evolution, the diversity of life, plant and animal form and function, and principles of ecology. It is recommended that students complete BIOL 101 and 111 before taking BIOL 102 and 112.

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BIOL 111 General Biology I Laboratory One Credit Hour
Prerequisite or Corequisite: BIOL 101
Non-majors course
Laboratory: two credit hours
The laboratory is designed to parallel the lecture content of BIOL 101.

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BIOL 112 General Biology II Laboratory One Credit Hour
Prerequisite or Corequisite: BIOL 102
Non-majors course
Laboratory: two credit hours
The laboratory is designed to parallel the lecture content of BIOL 102.

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BIOL 130 Introduction to Biology I Three Credit Hours
Prerequisite or Corequisite: BIOL 131
Required majors course
Lecture: three credit hours
An introductory course required of all biology majors and eduction majors whose teaching field is biology; recommended for students of other majors who are interested in medicine or other health professions. Topics include the scientific method and data analysis, cell and molecular biology, and genetics.

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BIOL 131 Introduction to Biology I Laboratory One Credit Hour
Prerequisite or Corequisite : BIOL 130
Required majors course
Laboratory: three credit hours
Laboratory exercises designed to parallel the lecture content of BIOL 130.

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BIOL 140 Introduction to Biology II Three Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 130 and BIOL 131 or grade of "B" or better in BIOL 101 and BIOL 111.
Prerequisite or Corequisite: BIOL 141
Required majors course
Lecture: three hours.
A continuation of the introductorycourse for biology majors. Topics include evolution, the diversity of life, plant and animal biology, and ecology.

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BIOL 141 Introduction to Biology II Laboratory One Credit Hour
Prerequisite: BIOL 130 and BIOL 131
Prerequisite or Corequisite: BIOL 140
Required majors course
Laboratory: three hours
Laboratory exercises designed to parallel the lecture content of BIOL 140.

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BIOL 203 Introduction to Plant Biology Four Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 102 and BIOL 112 or BIOL 140 and BIOL 141
Lecture: three hours
Laboratory: three hours
A general survey of the vascular and nonvascular plants. Lecture and laboratory experiences will include a study of the characteristics, life cycles, evolutionary trends, ecological importance, and economic value of each plant group.

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BIOL 204 Human Genetics Three Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 101
Non-majors course
Lecture: three hours
This course will introduce students to a variety of genetic issues that they will encounter during their lives including: 1) the genetics basis of disease; 2) genetically modified organisms; 3) genetic screening and prenatal diagnosis; 4) cancer; 5) the human genome; 6) genetically modified organisms; and 7) DNA fingerprinting. In addition to gaining a scientific understanding of these issues, the ethical and societal impacts will be discussed.

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BIOL 205 Cell Biology Four Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 140 and BIOL 141
Required majors course
Lecture: three hours
Laboratory: three hours
An introduction to the morphological, biochemical and biophysical properties of cells and their significance in life processes.

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BIOL 208 Evolution Three Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 140 and BIOL 141
Lecture: three hours
A basic course in the concepts of evolution and population dynamics. The history of evolutionary thought, the processes of organic evolution, and systematics are conducted.

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BIOL 209 Environmental Science Three Credit Hours
Non-majors course
Lecture: three hours
Human impact on our environment has never been so intesive or so far-reaching. Fundamental conditions in global nutrient cycling, biological diversity, atmospheric composition, and climate are changing at an unprecedented rate. This course will use real world case studies to investigate the complex interactions, among ecology, geology, chemistry, ethics, policy, and economics.

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BIOL 301 Invertebrate Zoology Four Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 140 and BIOL 141
Lecture: two hours
Laboratory: four hours
A general study of the invertebrate animals, including taxonomy, morphology, and ecology.

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BIOL 302 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Four Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 140 and BIOL 141
Lecture: three hours
Laboratory: three hours
A study of the functional anatomy of representative vertebrate animals. Emphasis will be placed on the evolution of the vertebrate body and adaptations in form and function in response to environmental pressures.

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BIOL 309 Animal Behavior (Ethology) Four Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 140 and BIOL 141 or PSYC 201 (General Psychology)
Lecture: three hours
Laboratory: three hours
This course deals with the description, development, and adaptive nature of behavior in free-living animals. The laboratory will emphasize the description and qualifications of behavior patterns.

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BIOL 308 Genetics Four Credit Hours
rerequisite: BIOL 205 or approval of the instructor
Strongly Recommended Prerequisite: STAT 160
Required majors course
Lecture: three hours
Laboratory: three hours
A study of inheritance, including Mendelian genetics. molecular genetics, changes in chromosome structure and number, cytogenetics. and population genetics.

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BIOL 310 Microbiology Four Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 205 or approval of instructor
Lecture: three hours
Laboratory: three hours
A general study of microorganisms and their importance to humans with special emphasis on their fundamental life processes. Includes a brief introduction to epidemiology and immunology.

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BIOL 314 The Vascular Flora of South Carolina Four Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 140 and BIOL 141 or approval of instructor
Lecture: two hours
Laboratory: four hours
An introductory study of the native vascular flora of South Carolina, emphasizing the identification and collection of native plants. The student will have practice in use of taxonomic keys and in preparation of specimens for The Citadel Herbarium.

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BIOL 317 Human Anatomy and Physiology I Three Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 101 and BIOL 111
Recommended Corequisite: BIOL 327
Non-majors course
Lecture: three hours
An introduction to the integrated structure and function of human organ systems covering cells and tissue; integumentary, skeletal, and nervous systems; and sensory organs.

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BIOL 318 Human Anatomy and Physiology II Three Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 317
Recommended Corequisite: BIOL 328
Non-majors course
Lecture: three hours
A continuation of the study of integrated structure and function of the human organ systems covering muscular, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, endocrine, and reproductive systems.

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BIOL 320 Intern Research Three Credit Hours
Prerequisite: Permission of the department head and supervising instructor
Eight hours per week
Students will have the opportunity to participate in ongoing research projects with faculty at The Citadel, The Medical University of South Carolina, National Marine Fisheries Services, and The South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, etc. Students must plan their schedule to allow two free afternoons per week, totaling eight hour per week in the laboratory, excluding travel. Students are expected to maintain a weekly laboratory notebook and write a research paper detailing their work.

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BIOL 322 History of Biology Three Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 140 and BIOL 141 or permission of the instructor
Lecture: three hours
Major aspects of the development of biological sciences and their relation ship to other scientific disciplines. Special attention will be paid to the development and content of theories and to changes in the methods of biological research.

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BIOL 327 Human Anatomy and Physiology I Lab One Credit Hour
Prerequisite: BIOL 101 and BIOL 111
Prerequisite or Corequisite: BIOL 317
Non-majors course
Laboratory: two hours
Laboratory exercises designed to illustrate and support lecture content of BIOL 317.

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BIOL 328 Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab One Credit Hour
Prequisite: BIOL 317
Prerequisite or Corequisite: BIOL 318
Non-majors course
Laboratory: two hours
Laboratory exercises designed to illustrate and support lecture content of BIOL 318.

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BIOL 401 Developmental Biology Four Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 205
Lecture: two hours
Laboratory: four hours
Contemporary experimental theories are combined with classical observations which focus on the mechanisms of early development in invertebrates and vertebrates. Laboratories include use of such model systems as sea urchins, frogs, and other indigenous species to explore fertilization strategies and aspects of egg-sperm interactions and early development of the embryo.

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BIOL 402 Descriptive Histology Four Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 140 and BIOL 141
Lecture: three hours
Laboratory: three hours
A detailed study of the chief types of animal tissues and a description of the histology and organs. Laboratory work includes microscopic study of cells, tissues, and organs of animals.

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BIOL 403 Animal Physiology Four Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 140, BIOL 141, and CHEM 208 (Organic Chemistry)
Lecture: three hours
Laboratory: three hours
A systematic study of the general physiology of animal organ systems.

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BIOL 406 Ecology Four Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 140 and BIOL 141
Recommended Prerequisite: STAT 160
Required majors course
Lecture: two hours
Laboratory: four hours
An introduction to the study of biological interrelationships and the effects of the environment on the structure and function of animal populations. Laboratory will emphasize methods and materials of ecological investigations.

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BIOL 408 Ornithology Four Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 140 and BIOL 141
Lecture: two hours
Laboratory: four hours
A study of the structure, function, and ecology of birds. Field trips and bird specimens will give students a working knowledge of birds common to South Carolina.

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BIOL 409 Marine Biology Four Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 140 and BIOL 141
Lecture: two hours
Laboratory: four hours
The lectures cover major ecological factors and the fundamentals of oceanography. Laboratory work stresses the familiarities with species, taxonomic methods, sampling procedures, experimental design, use of equipment and data handling.

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BIOL 410 Vertebrate Natural History Four Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 140 and BIOL 141
Lecture: three hours
Laboratory: two hours
An introduction to the classification, ecology, evolution and distribution of the vertebrates. Laboratory with emphasis on identification and field study techniques, especially with respect to the vertebrates of South Carolina.

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BIOL 412 Special Topics in Biology Three Credit Hours
Prerequisite: permission of the instructor
Lecture: three hours
A course designed for the study of specialized topics in modern biology.

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BIOL 414 Environmental Physiology Four Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 205
Recommended Prerequisite: BIOL 403
Lecture: three hours
Laboratory: three hours
This course will cover the physiological adaptations of organisms to physical and chemical parameters of the environment. It includes molecular mechanisms which help organisms adapt to environmental factors.

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BIOL 419 Economic Botany Three Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 140 and BIOL 141 or approval of instructor
Lecture: three hours
An introductory course in economic botany devoted to the consideration of plants which are useful or harmful to humans; their origins and history, botanical relationships, chemical constituents which make them economically important, and their roles in prehistoric and modern cultures and civilizations.

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BIOL 421 Toxicology Four Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 102 or BIOL 140 and CHEM 104 or CHEM 152, or BIOL 318
Lecture: three hours
Laboratory: three hours
An overview of the basic science of poisons, including the disposition of chemicals in the body, the role of metabolism in enhancing or reducing their toxicity, mechanisms of toxicity, and the effects of toxicants on major morgan systems.

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BIOL 424 Molecular Genetics Four Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 308, CHEM 208 (Organic Chemistry)
Strongly Recommended Prerequisites: BIOL 310 and CHEM 409
Lecture: three hours
Laboratory: three hours
Coordinated lecture/laboratory class covering classical molecular and cellular biochemistry as well as modern molecular genetics. Study of the manner in which genetic information is carried in DNA and how DNA directs the synthesis of proteins in bacterial and eucaryotic cells and their associated viruses. Specific topics to be covered include mechanisms governing gene expression, metabolic control system, gene therapy, oncogenesis, molecular genetics of genetic diversify, molecular basis of human diseases, and a review of known disease-causing genes such as the cystic fibrosis gene, Huntington's chorea gene, and the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy gene.

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BIOL 426 Freshwater Biology Four Credit Hours
Prerequisite: BIOL 140 and BIOL 141
Lecture: two hours
Laboratory: four hours
The study of freshwater organisms and their environment. Instruction will cover the biological diversity, ecological and physiological adaptations, and the physical setting of freshwater systems. Local systems of interest include large coastal rivers and lakes, upper portions of estuaries and old rice fields.

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BIOL 427 Immunology Three Credit Hours
Prerequisite or Corequisite: BIOL 205 and BIOL 308
Lecture: three hours
A description of the immune system including the cells and organs involved in immunity; antigen-antibody reactions; immunoglobulin structure function: organization and expression of immunoglobulin genes; the major histocompatibility complex; immune regulation and tolerance. These basic concepts will be applied to understanding the role of the immune system in vaccinations; infectious disease; organ transplantation; autoimmune disease; immunodeficiency diseases; AIDS and cancer.

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BIOL 429 Literature Seminar One Credit Hour
Prerequisite: BIOL 140 and BIOL 141
A current topics course that involves discussions of relevant journal articles and related materials.