War Between The States Print



There were 224 living Citadel graduates when South Carolina announced it was seceding from the Union and 209 served in the confederate armed forces during the period referred to as The War Between the States (1861-1865). Of the 15 who did not serve 5 were ministers of the gospel, 2 were physicians, 2 civilian engineers for the confederate government, 1 railway official, 3 resided in California and one was studying in Germany. By proclamation, the South Carolina legislature declared that "all graduates of The South Carolina Military Academy (The Citadel) be qualified for officer status, up to Colonel," so most served as officers. Those alumni who did not graduate, but resigned in order to serve, were not necessarily granted officer rank.


On 9 January 1861 Citadel Cadets under the command of the college's Superintendent, Col. Peter Stevens, fired what many consider to be the first shots of the War Between the States when the battery at Morris Island opened fire on the federal ship Star of the West that had been ordered to re-supply the federal garrison manning Ft Sumter in Charleston harbor. The cadet battery was exceptionally accurate and by the 5/6th round the ship had turned about having been struck 3 times. South Carolina had already anounced its secession in December 1860 and this event served to accelerate other southern states to join the confederacy.


In June, 1862, 37 cadets resigned from The Citadel and enlisted, forming the famous "Cadet Rangers," later to participate in the largest cavalry battle of the war at Trevilian Station, Va. In that battle, two "Rangers" were killed-in-action and six were wounded-in-action. During the war, a total of 11 Cadet Rangers were wounded in action and 4 made the ultimate sacrifice.


The Battalion of State Cadets was formed by order of the Governor and was made up of the combined classes of Citadel and Arsenal cadets. Among their numerous engagements was the Battle of Tulifinney Creek, SC. This battle may be the only time in U.S. history that an entire student body participated in a combat engagement and fought as a unit...... suffering eight casualties in the fight. The Battalion never surrendered in battle and never retreated, in fact they were the last armed confederate force in SC, and they fought what is arguably the last skirmish of the war at Williamston, SC on May 1, 1865. They finally disbanded themselves at Newberry, SC Courthouse on May 9, 1865. It should be noted for historical purposes that a member of this unit, W. McKenzie Parker, 1868, was arguably the last battle casualty of The War east of the Mississippi River when killed by federal soldiers on May 12, 1865, also at Williamston.


The Citadel knows of 90 graduates and cadets ( those who resigned while a cadet to join the fight, and those called to serve in the Cadet battalion) who died in the war as a result of being combatants, to include those killed on the battlefield by hostile fire, those who died of wounds suffered on the battlefield, and those who died after contracting an illness on the battlefield.  They are listed below to include the college's first graduate and first cadet combat deaths (KIA), as well as our first to be listed as Missing In Action (MIA). In total numbers, approximately 2275 students have been identified as having been enrolled as a cadet from 1842-1865 an estimated 325 were lost. There were 240 graduates (224 living at the time of hostilities) and 25% of those were lost. A known total of 31 cadets lost their lives serving in confederate forces during the war. Another result of the aftermath of this terrible conflict was that The Citadel was occupied by federal armed forces for 17 years reflecting the historical note that there were no graduating class's from 1865-1886.


As a result of actions on the battlefield by The Battalion of State Cadets, The Citadel earned the right to post nine "institutional" battle streamers for "significant participation in a battle of historical importance." Only VMI (one "institutional" streamer),  Florida State,  William & Mary and Univ. of Hawaii Army ROTC units (each with one) have also been authorized that right. The national service academies post the battle streamers of their respective services, but none for "institutional" participation by the cadet corps.


Much of Citadel record keeping was either lost, or intentionally destroyed, during the evacuation of the college in advance of Sherman's march into South Carolina in early 1865. Some records were transported to The Arsenal in Columbia as federal forces entered Charleston and physically occupied The Citadel for 17 years. Sherman's troops then marched on Columbia and many of the schools records that survived from Charleston were forever lost in the chaos that ensued. The data illustrated below is the result of referencing, and repeated cross-referencing, of SC state and local archives, family genealogy, books, Citadel record-keeping, on-line sources relating to Southern and South Carolina history of the period, even the engraving on various tombstones. Each name has been cross-referenced twice at a minimum, however one's unit and/or rank listed could be faulty due to eventual transfers/promotions. Research continues to uncover the identities of the other alumni who have made the ultimate sacrifice in answer to their state's call to arms and information from outside sources about alumni during this period is welcome. Dates, units, and rank can be erroneous due to record keeping, re-assignments, or promotions. On the list below, 'SOW' refers to one being a member of the battery on Morris Is. in 1861---a "Star of the West cadet".




ClassRank, Name, UnitBattleDeath Date
1846Click here to view a larger version.Col. Charles C. Tew (2nd NC)KIA, SharpsburgSeptember 17, 1862
1847Lt. Col. Augustus J. Lythgoe (1st SC)KIA, Stones River, TNDecember 31, 1862
1849Click here to view a larger version.Lt. Col. Franklin Gaillard (2nd SC)KIA, Wilderness, VAMay 6, 1864
1850Cpt. S. N. Kennerly (1st SC)KIA, Weldon RR, VAAugust 21, 1864
1851Cpt. Thomas B. Colding (Ga. Volun.)KIA, Winchester, VAJune 13, 1863
1851Lt. Col. F. Gendron Palmer (Holcombe’s Legion)KIA, 2nd Manassas, VASeptember 14, 1862
1851Col. Edward J. Walker (3rd Ga.)KIA, AtlantaAugust 21, 1864
1852Click here to view a larger version.Cpt. W. S. Brewster (SCM 17th Reg)KIA, Fredericksburg, VADecember 11, 1862
1852Cpt. T. W. Fitzgerald (12th ALA)KIA, Chancellorsville, VAMarch 6, 1864
1852Capt. George E. Gamble (SCM 3rd Reg)KIA, James Is., SCSeptember 14, 1861
1852Cpt. H. B. Housel (7th Fla.)Undetermined1862
1852Col. R. A. Palmer (2nd Miss.)KIA, 1st Manassas, VA (1st graduate KIA)July 21, 1861
1852Lt. George Seabrook (1st SC)Battlefield Disease, Morris Is., SCApril 2, 1861
1852Maj. D. T. Williams (2nd SC)KIA, Gettysburg, PAJuly 2, 1863
1854Col. D. G. Fleming (22nd SC)MIA, The Crater, VAJuly 30, 1864
1854Cpt. C. T. Haskell (1st SC)KIA, Morris Is., SCJuly 10, 1863
1854Click here to view a larger version.BG Micah Jenkins (Army of No. VA)KIA, Wilderness, VAMay 6, 1864
1854Cpt. J. S. Palmer (10th SC)KIA, Atlanta, GAJuly 22, 1864
1855Click here to view a larger version.Cpt. J. M. Dean (7 ARK.)KIA, Shiloh, TNApril 7, 1862
1856Cpt. J. A. EvansKIA, Kinnesaw Mt., TNJune 27, 1864
1856Maj. J. A. Finch (6th SC)KIA, 2nd Manassas, VAAugust 30, 1862
1856Cpt. J. H. Hart (12th SC)KIA, So. Mt., MDSeptember 14, 1862
1856Click here to view a larger version.Col. J. D. Nance (3rd SC)KIA, Wilderness, VAMay 6, 1864
1856Cpt. George A. Ross (Ark. Vol.)KIA1861
1857Col. C. W. McCreary (1st SC)KIA, Gravely Run, SCMay 31, 1865
1857Col. William D. Rutherford (3rd SC)KIA, Strasburg, VAOctober 13, 1864
1859James E. DelormeUndeterminedUndetermined
1859Cpt. James L. Litchfield (7th SC)KIA, 2nd Manassas, VASeptember 13, 1862
1859T. O. McCaslan (1st SC)KIA, 2nd Manassas, VAAugust 30, 1862
1859Lt. G. M. McDowell (2nd SC)KIA, Gettysburg, PAJuly 3, 1863
1859Col. William H. J. Mitchell (17th SC)MIA, Petersburg, VA (1st MIA)June 18, 1864
1859Maj. W. P. Shooter (1st SC)KIA, Spotsylvania, PAMay 12, 1864
1859Col. O. J. Youmans (2nd SC)KIA, Wilderness, VAMay 6, 1864
1860Lt William Alisson (__)KIA, UnknownMay 4, 1862
1860Frank DeCardeuc (1st SC)Battlefield Disease, Staunton, VANovember 3, 1863
1860Maj. E. A. Erwin (1st SC)KIA, Morris Island, SCSeptember 7, 1863
1860Click here to view a larger version.Capt. Francis H. Harleston (1st SC)KIA, Ft. Sumter, SCNovember 24, 1863
18602/Lt. S. S. Kirby (Palmetto Light Artillery)KIA, Rivers Bridge, SCFebruary 2, 1865
1860Click here to view a larger version.__ Theodore K. Klinck (Washington Light Infantry)WIA, Seven PinesJune 11, 1862
1860Click here to view a larger version.2/Lt. Joshua Moses (3rd Palmetto)KIA, Ft. Blakely, Al.April 9, 1865
1860Cpt. J. Nettles (10th SC)Died while POWJanuary 14, 1863
1861Lt Robert S. BryceKIA, Chicamauga, GASeptember 22, 1863
1861Click here to view a larger version.1/Lt. James H. Burns (6th NC )KIA, Gettysburg, PAJuly 2, 1863
1861D. P. Campbell (11th SC )KIA, Pocataglio, SCOctober 22, 1862
1861Lt. J. J. Coward (5th SC )KIA, Seven Pines, VAJune 1, 1862
1861Click here to view a larger version.Capt. Randall Croft (16th SC SOW CADET)Battlefield disease, Aiken, SCJuly 26, 1862
18611/Lt James Horlbeck (3rd SC Arty SOW Cadet)WIA, Avasboro, NCdied from wounds 13 Jan 1866
1861Click here to view a larger version.1/Lt. John Dosier Lee (9th SCV )KIA, Gaines Mill, VAJune 30, 1862
1861J. C. Palmer (24th SC )KIA, Chicamauga, GASeptember 19, 1863
1861Click here to view a larger version.Maj. John Marshall Whilden (23rd SC SOW Cadet)KIA, 2nd Manassas, VAAugust 30, 1862
1861Nicholas Wilson (12th SC )KIA, Sharpsburg, MDSeptember 17, 1862
1861T. H. Wylie (6th SC)WIA, Seven Pines, VA 1862-06-05Died of wounds1865-11-17
1862Lt Thomas B. Alisson (__)WIA 1865, In VirginiaDied of wounds1866-10
1862Cpt. G. B. Dyer (2nd SC )KIA, Cold Harbor, VAJune 1, 1864
1862Capt. G. M. Lalane (25th SC )KIA, James Island, SCJuly 30, 1863
1862Click here to view a larger version.Cadet Ranger G. A McDowell (6th SC)KIA, Johns Island, SCFebruary 9, 1864
1862Click here to view a larger version.William McKewn (5th SC )KIA, Fredericksburg, VADecember 14, 1863
1862Lt. J. T. Norris (19th SC)KIA, Stones River, TNJanuary 10, 1863
18632/Lt. John A. Craig (21st SC)KIA, Drury's Bluff, VAMay 16, 1864
1863J. B. Dotterer (24th SC)KIA, New Hope Church, GAMay 24, 1864
1863Click here to view a larger version.Cadet Ranger John S. Dutart (6th SC Cavalry)KIA, Johns Island, SCFebruary 9, 1864
1863Click here to view a larger version.William Gregg (21st SC)KIA, Gaines Mill, VAJune 29, 1863
1863P. Hamilton (24th SC)KIA, Chickamauga, GASeptember 19, 1863
1863Click here to view a larger version.Col. M. B. Humphrey (6th SC "Cadet Ranger")KIA, Bentonville, NCApril 30, 1865
1863John C. Neil (Palmetto Sharpshooters)KIA, 2nd Manassas, VAAugust 30, 1862
1863"Cadet Ranger" W. J. Nettles (6th SC Cavalry)KIA, Franklin, TNOctober 27, 1864
1863Click here to view a larger version.Maj. T.A. Quattlebaum (7th SC SOW Cadet)MIA, The Crater, VAJuly 30, 1864
1863Click here to view a larger version.William Mason Smith (27th SC)KIA, Cold Harbor, VAJune 1, 1864
1864Cadet Ranger A.W. Dozier (6th SC)Died from POW wounds, POW ConfinmentJune 2, 1869
1864Cpt. A. F. Miller (1st SC)KIA, Petersburg, VANovember 30, 1864
1864"Cadet Ranger" James O. Sheppard (6th SC)KIA, Trevilian Station, VAJune 12, 1864
1864Cadet Ranger Joseph Willingham (__)KIA, Fayettville, NCJan 1865
1865"Cadet Ranger" Ross Davis (6th SC)KIA, PetersburgJune 12, 1864
1865George W. McKenzie (2nd SC)KIA, Mt. Jackson, VAJanuary 4, 1864
1865R. F. Nichols (add 7th SC)Battlefield DiseaseDecember 10, 1864
1865W. J. B. Patterson (Battalion of State Cadets)KIA, Tulifinny Creek, SC (first cadet KIA)December 7, 1864
1866John Culbreath (7th SC)Battlefield DiseaseApril 17, 1865
1866B. T. Gibbs (16th SC)Battlefield DiseaseMarch 12, 1864
1866H. S. MorrisonBattlefield DiseaseAugust 16, 1863
1866William RavenelBattlefield DiseaseAugust 23, 1863
1867 Brooks (6th SC Cavalry)June 12, 1864
1867Joseph P. Huger (Manigaults Battalion)KIA, Ft. Sumter, SCApril 13, 1864
1867Joseph E. Sams (8th SC)Battlefield DiseaseMarch 22, 1865
1868Albert O. Brown (26th SC)Battlefield DiseaseJanuary 29, 1865
1868George O. Buck (7th SC)Battlefield DiseaseJanuary 22, 1865
1868George Grant (18th SC)MIA, Bentonville, NCMarch 21, 1865
1868Thomas Albert Johnson (7th SC)Battlefield DiseaseMarch 23, 1865
1868Osma KnoxBattlefield DiseaseNovember 28, 1864
1868Johnnie C. Mangrum (26th SC)Battlefield Wounds1866
1868Robert E. Muldrow (25th SC)Battlefield DiseaseApril 7, 1865
1868Russell Noble (7th SC)Battlefield DiseaseJanuary 12, 1865
1868W. McKenzie Parker (Battalion of State Cadets)KIA, Williamston, SC (last confederate death)May 9, 1865